General Information

Official Name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Official short name: Pakistan.

Former name before the secession of Bangladesh in 1971: West Pakistan.

Founded by: Great Leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876 – 1948).

Official Poet: Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877 – 1938). 

Religion: 97% Muslims and 3% Christians, Hindus, Sikhs and other minorities.


Urdu (national and official language), English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto and Balochi.


Real economic growth (estimate) – 2.7%.

Natural Resources:
farms, natural gas, little oil, hydroelectricity, coal, iron ore, copper and salt. 


Products: wheat, cotton, rice, sugar cane, fruit, vegetables and meat.

textile, food products, pharmaceuticals, building materials, prawns, chemical fertilizers and paper products.


Exports: textile, rice, leather, sports goods, carpets, chemicals.

Key partners (export): USA 16%, UAE 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.9%, the UK 4.5% and China 4.2%. 

Imports: Petrol products, machinery, plastics, paper, transport equipment, cooking oil, grains, iron and steel, and tea.

Key partners (import): China 14.1%, Saudi Arabia 12%, UAE 11.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, India 4.8%, USA 4.7% and Malaysia 4.1%.

Pakistan is located in southern Asia, adjacent to the Arabian Sea, bordered by India to the east, Iran and Afghanistan to the West and China to the north. Pakistan has a history of at least 4500 years, when it had a very advanced and booming civilization in what was known as the Indus River Valley. This civilization lived for 800 years before it decayed.

Coordinates: 30 degrees north and 70 degrees east.

Area: land: 778,720 square kilometers.

Lengths of land borders with neighboring countries:

Ethnic Groups:

Punjabis, Sindhis, Pashtuns, Balochis, Muhajirs (Urdu-speaking immigrants who came from India with their families during separation), Sariakis and Hazara.

  • 2430 km with Afghanistan
  • 523 km with China
  • 2912 km with India
  • 909 km with Iran
  • 1046 coastline


Pakistan enjoys a dry climate in most parts of the country. It is a dry, desert weather. It is generally hot in summer and cold in winter. The northwestern parts of the country experience moderate polar climate. The coastal region in the south has a humid, moderate climate most of the year.


Most of Pakistan falls in general in the Indus plain region in the East. It has mountains in the North and Northwest and Balochistan region in the West.

Pakistan is divided into four main geographic regions as follows:

  1. Northern and western elevations: mountains form most of the northern and northwestern parts of Pakistan. K2 is the second highest mountain in the world, rising 8611 meters above sea level. It is located in the Pakistani-ruled area of Kashmir. It is second to only Mount Everest. Mountainous corridors meet at several points and passes, at the highest rugged elevations, the most famous of which is Khyber Pass that connects northern Pakistan to Afghanistan.
  2. Punjab and Indus River plains. These occupy most of the eastern parts of the country. They are muddy plains that were formed by rivers. The Punjab region in the north is irrigated by the Indus River in addition to four tributaries: Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej. Water flowing from these four tributaries meets with Indus River water in the eastern parts of central Pakistan. Towards the south, where the four tributaries meet the Indus River, the river becomes wider then it flows through the Indus Plain to its downstream in the Arabian Sea.
  3. Balochistan Plateau: is located in the western part of Pakistan. Most of its parts are rocky and have dry weather. Plants are scarce in this region.
  4. Indus Basin: one of the most important regions of Pakistan, being the richest with farms. It has the most population density. The area of the region is 1409 square km and the area of the basin is 1166 square km. this region falls between Balochistan in the west and Thar Desert in the east.

Natural Resources

Pakistan enjoys a lot of natural resources of wealth, of which rivers are considered the most important at all because they provide water to irrigate more than 15 million hectare of farmland in addition to being used to generate power. Central Pakistan has vast natural gas reservoirs. Pakistan has limited oil reserves, a low-grade type of coal, iron ore, copper, salt and limestone.

  • System of government: Federal Republic
  • Capital City: Islamabad
  • Administrative Units:

Pakistan is divided into 5 main provinces:

  • Balochistan
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
  • Punjab
  • Sindh
  • Gilgit-Baltistan
  • Tribal areas under the administration of Islamabad
  • Azad Jammu & Kashmir


What is known today as Pakistan was part of British-occupied India in the 19th century until the mid-20th century. When India gained independence in 1947, Britain divided the country on religious basis and so it established Pakistan which became an independent state in 14 August 1947.

National Day:

Pakistan celebrates the national day on 23 March of every year to commemorate the declaration of the republic in 1956.


Pakistan adopted a new constitution on April 12, 1973 but it was suspended on July 5,1977 before it was reinstated on December 30, 1985. But the constitution was suspended again on October 15, 1999 and has been on and off until 2002. The constitution was amended on December 31, 2003 and then suspended once more on November 3, 2007 then reinstated on December 15, 2007.


Pakistani statute is based on the general principles of the English common law with some modifications for it to suit Pakistan as a Muslim nation. Pakistan recognizes as compulsory the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice but with some reservations.

Legal age for casting ballot:
18 years for males and females. The Pakistani parliament has a preset quota for women and non-Muslims.

Pakistan’s flag:
is green with a vertical white strip on the left side, which symbolizes the role of religious minorities in the country. A crescent and star are in the middle of the green area. The crescent, star and green color are traditional symbols in Islam.